Saturday, July 25, 2020

Sample TOEFL Essay (Paired Choice)

Sample TOEFL Essay (Paired Choice) The QuestionSome people prefer to eat meals at restaurants, while others prefer to prepare and eat food in their own home. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.Special Offer: TOEFL Essay Evaluation and ScoringYou can now sign up to have your practice essays evaluated and scored by the author of this page. This service is a great way to learn how you will do before test day and how you can best prepare for the big day. Sign up today.The Sample EssayThese days, people enjoy a plethora of dining options, as it is now possible to eat food at wonderful restaurants serving food from around the world, or to use modern technology to prepare great food in the comfort of our own homes. Personally, I prefer to eat at home, rather than going out. I feel this way for two reasons, which I will explore in the following essay. To begin with, meals cooked at home are healthier than meals from restaurants, and I strongly value my health. While meals prepared a t restaurants are certainly delicious, they usually include a lot of oil, salt and sugar. Over-consumption of unhealthy ingredients can have a profound effect on our health, and can even lead to chronic illnesses. When I cook for myself at home, I precisely measure the amounts of everything that goes into my food and try my best to limit unhealthy ingredients whenever possible. It is true that my meals may not taste quite as nice at those I might get at a fancy restaurant, but I still enjoy my creations. Rather than enjoying just the taste of the food, much of my pleasure is derived from the enjoyment that went into the cooking of it, and the peace of mind that I gain from knowing that I am taking care of my body. Secondly, everyone knows that restaurants are incredibly expensive. I do not blame restaurant owners for this because I know they must pay a lot for labor, real estate and utilities, but it is true that a meal that might cost five dollars to prepare at home will cost ten times that amount when served to me at a restaurant. Moreover, my country has a tipping culture, which adds increased costs every time I eat out. For example, I remember last month how I paid about fifteen dollars for a simple meal of fish and chips. Potatoes are clearly one of the most inexpensive vegetables in the world, and since I live near the sea, fresh fish can be bought at a local market for just a few dollars a pound. I enjoyed myself, but the amount I paid for it made me feel like I was being irresponsible with my money. In conclusion, I certainly prefer to eat at home rather than at a restaurant. I feel this way because eating at home is healthier, and it makes a lot more economic sense than going out for an expensive meal. (415 words)NoteThis is a sample TOEFL paired choice essay written by a native speaker. It follows our TOEFL writing templates for independent essays. If you find it useful, please remember that we have many more sample essaysfor you to read!

Friday, May 22, 2020

Mobile Commerce Beyond E-Commerce - 7658 Words

Mobile Commerce: Beyond E-Commerce Abstract The popularity of m-commerce devices, especially mobile phones among consumers high-lighted a new source of revenue for businesses. An industry review in mobile commerce found a variety of current trends and business models that will affect future strategic uses from a project management perspective. This paper explores m-commerce technology from a business perspective; how it is similar and differs from e-commerce technically; and tries identifying and exploring potential strategic uses for this new technology. Introduction It is increasingly becoming an understatement to say that the Internet and related technologies are changing the ways we live. Clearly, these technologies will affect†¦show more content†¦These percentages are expected to continue to grow as new models of phones, such as Google’s Android, proliferate into the market. US Revenues from m-commerce in 2009 were $1.2 billion up from $396 million in 2008(Maher, 2010), and as consumers become more comfortable with making purchases with these smartphones, business generated through m-commerce is expected to continue to triple within the next few years(Power,2009). To capture some of this revenue, most wireless mobile providers now offer phones with marketplaces that deliver ringtones, music and customer applications, and major business firms such as Ebay, Macy’s, Scottstrade, and Bank of America have custom applications. These factors make m-commerce a new and important form of business technology that firms need to s trategically consider. M-Commerce: Understanding the fundamentals What is m-commerce? In the past, business typically mass-produced goods and services, selling them through store, catalogue and phone. In the 90’s, the Internet produced a paradigm shift to these marketing strategies; forcing business to reevaluate its own business models and how it communicates its product and services to customers. This diffusion of commerce through the Internet was coined e-commerce, and it unleashed a revolution in buying power. Today, with the rapid proliferation of the mobile phone market, mobile telephony offers the potential platform for unprecedented penetration of the Internet and servicesShow MoreRelatedThe Objectives Of Learning Mobile Electronic Commerce1450 Words   |  6 Pages The objectives of learning Mobile Electronic Commerce are: †¢ To view new and existing Opportunities in MEC. †¢ To understand the nature oforganizations as open systems and reasons for implementing and utilizing e-Commerce. †¢ Modifications that needs to take place in the organizations to effectively implement MEC. †¢ Role of Performance Management in improvingorganization’s performance in e-commerce. †¢ Importance of Customer Orientation in MEC. †¢ Operational and Strategic Outcomesof MEC in order toRead MoreThe Advantages of Mobile Commerce Essay1326 Words   |  6 PagesWhat is M-commerce? The last decade has witnessed a lot of growth of mobile communication devices and wireless technologies across the globe. This has led to a change in the way many activities are conducted and opened the way for m-commerce, which is e-commerces next evolutionary stage. The significant power of m-commerce is primarily as a result of the ability to connect wireless devices anytime, anywhere (The Future of Mobile Payment Systems : Rise of the Mobile Wallet 2012-2017 [ElectronicRead MoreSecurity and Payment Issues Faced by e-commerce Business in the Hospitality Industry978 Words   |  4 Pagesviolations and cyber-attacks to e-commerce systems especially in the hospitality industry. â€Å"In 2011, Trustwave SpiderLabs conducted 42 percent more data breach investigations than in the previous year. More than 85 percent of these data breaches occurred in the food and beverage, retail and hospitality industries.† (Savitz Percoco, 2012). It seems logical that any business would under stand that building a secure business is important to long term success. (Vacca, 2012). E-commerce as a catalyst has ledRead MoreElectronic Payment Social Commerce Essay1413 Words   |  6 Pagesi.e. organizations that conduct their business solely online (Turban E. , Lee, King, McKay, Marshall, 2008), and for this reason e-payment is assumed to be the sole means of payment. (Snellman, Vesala, Humphrey, 2001) Defines e-payments as any payment service that makes use of information and communications technologies including Integrated Circuit (IC) cards, cryptography and telecommunications. However, in this study, e-payment refers to all electronic transactions as payment for goods andRead MoreThe Three Major Factors Fueling International Technological Growth1271 Words   |  6 PagesThe Three Major Factors Fueling International Technological Growth According to Matthew and Kleiner (2008) the three major factors fueling international technological growth are the internet, telecommunications, and e-commerce. The internet has the capability to generate international market expansion and future international growth for firms. It has evolved into a mechanism that can be used to capture new international market opportunities. Due to transactional and communication capabilitiesRead MoreThe Management Of Information Systems Essay1526 Words   |  7 Pagestake over the e-commerce world. â€Å"Electronic commerce describes the process of buying, selling, transferring, or exchanging products, services, or information via computer networks, including the internet,† (Rainer, 328). The type of e-commerce that Domino’s focuses on is business-to-consumer, where the sellers are organizations and the buyers are individuals. Domino’s started off using their webpage as the main source of orders being placed. In 2012, Domino’s introduced the mobile app for AndroidRead MoreThe Role Of Social Media On Global E Commerce1507 Words   |  7 PagesThe Role of Social Media in Global e-Commerce Name Affiliated Institution E-commerce is short for electronic commerce where the participants (companies) trade their products and services using computer networks. The buyers and sellers can use platforms like mobile commerce, electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, online transaction processing, data collection, internet marketing, electronic data interchange and inventory management systems. Currently, most of these transactions have takenRead MoreBA 3103 Critical Analysis Paper Pier 11351 Words   |  6 Pagesof the e-commerce era? This paper will help us better understand this decision by employing four analytical frameworks. We begin with the PEST analysis which helps us identify and understand global trends. Figure 1: PEST Analysis of Global Trends: 2010-2015 Political Increased global communication and relationships Economic Inflation increasing globally Increasing oil costs Increasing commodity pricing Social Social Media Decline in population Demographics/Mobility Technological E-commerce MobileRead MoreAlibaba2832 Words   |  12 Pagesefforts to promote the perception of the reliability and security of e-commerce. Comprising of its future plans in logistics improvement, expansion into developing nations, integration with social networks, venture into mobile commerce, and also, industries beyond, the report then ends with suggestions for future possibilities that the Group could explore. Outline of Alibaba Group Set in a fast moving, highly pragmatic e-commerce sector, Alibaba Group has never been shy of its ambition which comprisesRead MoreMobile Commerce: Literature Review2392 Words   |  10 PagesMobile Commerce: Literature Review Dr. Sudha Singh ( Associate Professor, PG Department of Computer Science and Engineering, BCET, Durgapur.) The m-commerce (MC) is an evolving, dynamic, unique and rapidly changing business opportunity with its own characteristics and concept (Lindsay, 2000). Many industry experts believe that m-commerce is a sleeping giant whose time has yet to come (Buhan, 2002). E-commerce benefited many organizations by reducing supplier cost and increasing profit. E-commerce

Friday, May 8, 2020

How the Media Changes People’s Attitudes Towards Mental...

The media, which consists of television, radio and the newspaper, is referred to as a form of communication. It is thought as the most powerful tool of communication due to the fact that it is able to present information at any time either promoting it in a positive or negative light. The media is also known for presenting fake news, however due to the fact that they are communicating to the masses the majority of news is believed if from a ‘reliable’ source. Newspaper companies such as ‘The Sun’ and ‘The Daily Mail’ pay extortionate prices in order to obtain front page stories from paparazzi so they can publish them in their papers resulting more profit for the companies as more individuals buy the papers. The media are able to shape the†¦show more content†¦Another negative portrayal of mental illnesses within the media would be the celebrity Britney Spears. Over the years it has been suggested that the global pop icon suffers from a wide range of mental illnesses, from Bipolar Disorder and Manic Depression to Borderline Personality Disorder and even Postpartum Psychosis. Britney Spears has been subjected to media humilation following a string of divorces which lead to her Bipolar being triggered. Bipolar, which is known in the past as manic depression, is a condition that affects your moods, which can swing from one extreme to another (2) does not have a known cause however it is though that a trigger could impact the individual. In early January of 2007 Britney Spearss aunt died of cancer, this could have been the trigger to Britney’s mental illnesses as just one month later she drastically shaved her head and was then forced into rehab a week later by her family. However, after spending under 24 hours in rehab she checked herself out. The next year was filled with tragedy. She was involved in car accidents, missed court dates, and lost custody of her children. In 2008, Britney locked herself in the bathroom of her home with her small children, refusing to come out. It shifted into a police standoff with full media attention. Eventually, Britney was carried out of the home on a stretcher and taken to Cedars SinaiShow MoreRelatedPsychology Module On Pre Entry Course1374 Words   |  6 PagesWhat is Attitude? I will use all research the basic knowledge of psychological research to define Attitude which relates to everyday Human Behaviour. I will be discussing the prospect on behaviour and using well- known Psychologists on their theory on attitudes that effect people behaviour. I will be discussing different approaches towards people attitude by using areas of different areas that attitude changes, i.e. discussing sporting events how that change people attitude, mental illnessRead MoreMental Illness And Its Effects On People s Mood, Thinking, And Behavior1660 Words   |  7 PagesMental illness, a medical condition, are disorders that can affect people’s mood, thinking, and behavior. Many people don’t pay much attention to these disorders, because they are not familiar with psychiatric illness. Not paying attention to detecting and treating mental illness is an issue, because it can increase the risk of violence more than treated mentally ill people. For example, the failure to treat the ill can have dire consequences because it can increase the risk of mass shootings. BeingRead MoreThe Media And Federal Government1619 Words   |  7 Pages Mental and Social Disorder One in every seventeen people in America suffers from a mental disorder. These disorders inhibit the afflicted person from functioning properly and coping normally with daily life. Many afflicted with a psychological disorder do not exhibit obvious symptoms, as medical advancements have made it possible for these disorders to be suppressed or even nonexistent. Today, however, harsh stigmas exist that unfairly categorize those with a mental illness as violent, unfriendlyRead MoreAlicia Kate O. Borja. English 27 A. Andre Dominic Peralta.1260 Words   |  6 PagesAlicia Kate O. Borja English 27 A Andre Dominic Peralta Reducing Stigma in Mental Health Conditions Background on Mental Health Mental Health is often used as a representation of mental health conditions such as anxiety disorders, depression, schizophrenia, and others. 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This month, we renew our commitment to ridding ourRead MoreThe Media Influences Public Attitude Essay1500 Words   |  6 PagesThe media, who influance the publics attitudes towards issues such as the mental health stigma, have the ability to determind individuals perceptions and opinions on important matters due to the way they present the information. For example if the media were trying to create a barrier between those with mental illnesses and those without this could easily be done by only publishing negative stories reguarding the situation. The Press Complaints Commission The press complaints commission (PCC), whichRead MoreThe Issue Of The Gay Liberation Movement1627 Words   |  7 PagesAlthough the gay liberation movement had very little impact at that time, it set the stage for bigger and better changes in the future. Since the 1960’s America has added, removed, and adjusted laws against homosexuals. On May 17, 2004, Massachusetts becomes the first state in the United State to legalize same–sex marriage. The Massachusetts Chief Justice concluded, â€Å"to deny the protections, benefits, and obligations conferred by civil marriage to gay couples was unconstitutional because it deniedRead MoreThe Cause And Effect Of The Teen Suicide Essay1334 Words   |  6 Pagesfor being suicidal, well, maybe I could change your mind. So first, let me tell you some of the possible causes for teens being suicidal. There are plenty of other reasons a teen might feel suicidal but these are some that I could think of. So because of where we live, and drugs being a growing problem here, I thought I’d focus a little on the living environment, focus also on another environment that the teen might encounter, and lastly on the mental health perspective. Some teens live in a reallyRead MoreIs Body Image Insecurity?1708 Words   |  7 PagesBody image insecurity is an issue that a large majority of females in our world face on a daily basis. Celebrities have been idealized by the media to a point of unreachable standards, not always by their own desire. Modifications and enhancements are made to nearly all published photos, making the perfect body type one that does not truly exist in the real world. Because of today’s technological advances, celebrity news is never more than a smart phone click away. This constant availability hasRead MoreThe Medias Influence on Health Essay2760 Words   |  12 Pages The mass media (including everything from television and music to popular novels and fan cultures), creates an endless and accessible flow of information. What we know about the world beyond out immediate surroundings comes to us via the media (Yates 1999). The technology of electronic media and the art of advertising have co mbined to create very powerful tools of influence. These tools are capable of shaping the attitudes, values and behaviors of large numbers of people (Walsh.) By identifying

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Government Policies to Control Consumption Patterns Free Essays

string(183) " upon food products will result in the discouragement of the purchase of food products and encourage consumers to purchase other products \(Andreyeva,, Long,, Brownell,2010\)\." Abstract: This report aims to examine two government policy options regarding couples, families with male heads, and families with female heads and their consumption of a basket of food and beverages. The government aims to encourage couples to have children in the future by increasing their standard of living. While this report examines both policy options using the utility maximization technique and the expenditure minimization technique and concepts of consumer theory and price elasticity of demand, this report concludes that neither of the options are optimal in increasing the welfare of the couples and families. We will write a custom essay sample on Government Policies to Control Consumption Patterns or any similar topic only for you Order Now Thus, the report suggests that the government should encourage couples and households to save by offering a higher interest rate. Introduction: In order to encourage and discourage consumption patterns of various products and to manage consumer policies effectively, governments often design macro and micro economic policies to facilitate the performance of certain behaviour. This report seeks to examine the consumption patterns of different types of households, the first being a household consisting of a couple, and the other households of families with children. The report seeks to analyze the expenditure patterns of a household with a male head and compare it with a household with a female head, along with making comparisons between these families and couples without any children (Nishumura Shimomura, 2012). The government’s main aim in the scenario described in the case study is to encourage single couples without any children to begin families and they believe this would be possible if the government encouraged the consumption of other products besides food and beverages. Hence, the government has devised two different policy options to facilitate the performance of such behaviour. The first policy aims to increase the disposable income of all households in order to encourage the consumption of products other than food and beverages. Moreover, the government also wishes to provide monetary benefit to households with children which will also increase their disposable income. The second policy option is to discourage the consumption of food by taxing food products. Thus, this will potentially encourage households to purchase other products except for food. However, the government also wishes to ensure that the households do not become worse off and are as happy as they were previ ously. In order to examine this situation in detail, it is important to use the aid of various economic and scientific models. Thus, this report will commence with a methodology which describes the methods used to analyze and solve this situation by choosing the best policy option. The report will then commence with an examination of each of the policies and their consecutive impact upon the welfare of these households in detail. The report will then analyze the different policy options and their social context, thereby arriving at a conclusion regarding whether either of the policy options are suitable or suggesting other policy options which may be more suitable for this scenario. Methodology: 2.1 Numerical and Theoretical Methodology In order to analyze the situation described in this scenario, this report will make use of various economic models and theories. The first economic theory and numeric economic model that will be used to analyze these policy options is the Utility Maximization Models and the Expenditure Minimization Models. The first step will be to find the optimal utility bundles of both the goods and the associate level of utility of goods and make comparisons between them in order to determine which bundle is offering the most utility. The Utility Maximization technique using the Cobb Douglass function will be used in order to find the combination of goods that provide optimal utility for the households. This will then be followed by the expenditure minimization technique to determine which combination of goods will facilitate minimum expenditure and be an optimum and attractive choice for each of the three households. It is also essential to calculate the effect of policy upon the demand for products and to also calculate the demand for the basket of goods without policy. This will be done with the aid of the optimal demand function for each of the households without policy and with policy. Thus the various budget points for each of the options will be determined and the welfare functions of each of the options for the three households will be constructed. The concepts of consumer theory and price elasticity of demand will also be considered in determining the effectiveness of both policies and determining which policy is the best policy to use in order to encourage the consumption of other goods besides food and beverages. Graphical Methodology: The report will make use of the budget points derived in the numerical calculations of the analysis conducted and then construct budget lines and indifference curves in order to determine which options are optimal for the government and provide maximum utility to consumers without decreasing their welfare. The report will also make use of demand curves and Engel curves to appropriately arrive at a conclusion regarding the two policies mentioned. If neither of the policies seem suitable, the report will offer an alternative policy and provide an explanation of why this policy is more suitable than the ones mentioned in the scenario. Analysis of Both Policy Options: 3.1 Price Elasticity of Demand: The concept of price elasticity of demand measures the extent to which the quantity demanded changes with a change in price. There are basically two types of elasticity which includes elastic demand and inelastic demand. It is essential for governments to know the price elasticity of demand to determine whether the implication of taxes will result in the discouragement or encouragement of purchasing certain products. Thus, in order to determine whether policy option 1 or policy option 2 would prove to be more effective, it is essential for the government to know the price elasticity of demand of food and whether imposing a tax upon food products will result in the discouragement of the purchase of food products and encourage consumers to purchase other products (Andreyeva,, Long,, Brownell,2010). You read "Government Policies to Control Consumption Patterns" in category "Essay examples" If the demand for food products is elastic, this means that policy option 2 which is the imposition of a tax upon food products may prove to be effective in encouraging households to purchase other products besides food. However, if the price elasticity of demand for food products is inelastic, this means that policy option 2 may be ineffective in encouraging consumers to demand other products besides food products. However, the government must ensure that the imposition of a tax upon the various households will not decrease their respective welfare and will leave them as happy as they previously were. The imposition of a tax may reduce the welfare of the respective households and may thus prove not to be an optimum policy. Moreover, the demand for food and beverages is likely to be more or less inelastic as food and beverages are necessities which must be consumed (Starr, 2011). Thus, the concept of price elasticity of demand is applicable in the case of policy option 2 but may not prove to be effective with a 10% tax and possibly not even with the imposition of a 15% tax as if the demand for food and beverages is inelastic, the imposition of a tax will not affect demand to a large extent but may slightly affect demand for all households. However, it will decrease the welfare of male-headed households as they spend a maximum amount of their money upon food and beverages and may also decrease welfare of female headed households. However, the tax may not be as effective upon the expenditure patterns of couples (Bhargava, 2013). Utility Maximization Principle: The utility maximizing principle states that consumers should purchase the combination of goods that maximizes utility and ensures that every dollar spent on that good increases their utility instead of resulting in diminishing utility. Consumers are encouraged to purchase a combination of goods which increases their utility in all respects (Chor, 2010). Hence, in order to find the utility maximization function, it is essential to first find the budget constraint of each good. If the income of each household is approximately $600 and a basket of food and beverages costs $15 while a unit of all other products costs $20. The budget constraint for consumers with $600 for a basket of food and beverages is equal to 40 baskets of goods and services (See Appendix A).The budget constraint for purchasing all other products with an income of $600 is 30 units of other items (See Appendix A). Thus, assuming that consumers are currently purchasing at maximum utility, the utility function for the combination of these two products for couples is: U(x1, x2)= 12/25(x1) 11/4 (x2) The subsequent utility functions for the other families are shown in the appendix. While plotting the budget constraints and the maximum utility points on the indifference curves, it is obvious that couples are maximizing their utility with their current combination of food and beverages but male headed families can maximize their utility by purchasing more of other products and less of food and beverages (Gertler Karadi, 2011). Female headed households can also maximize their utility by purchasing other products besides food and beverages. However, looking at this scenario, it is obvious that while increasing the disposable income of families with children by offering them extra benefits, this will consecutively increase their standard of living and may encourage couples to have children in the future. Moreover, increasing the disposable income of couples by $40 will only allow them to purchase two additional units of other products. However, the purchase of two of these additiona l units may increase their standard of living and may allow the government to achieve their target of encouraging couples to have children (Stavins, 2010). By taxing food and beverages and adopting policy option 2, the government is decreasing utility for all households as most of the households spend a major proportion of their income upon food and beverages. Thus, policy option 2 is not advisable when considering keeping welfare constant for couples and possibly increasing it for families. Expenditure Minimization Problem: The government has two motives when deciding upon a policy option, the first being to maximize or improve welfare and to also minimize their own expenditure upon the policy option that they choose (Refer to Appendix B). Under policy option 1, the government is incurring a heavy expenditure upon offering both families child benefits and also offering an income tax benefit to increase disposable income. This will cause the government sufficient expenditure and will not minimize the government’s expenditure. However, policy option two is increasing the government’s revenue as the government will be imposing a tax upon food and beverages which is a necessity and will thus be reaping revenue from the sale of food and beverages. The government is not incurring expenditure in policy option 2 but is incurring a lot of expenditure in policy option 1 (Tsai et al, 2010). Thus, according to the expenditure minimization model, policy option 2 is more ideal than policy option 1 as policy option 2 offers the government additional revenue and policy option 1 is incurring the government sufficient costs. Looking at the scenarios, of utility maximization and expenditure minimization and price elasticity of demand, both policy options do not seem to be optimal as they are both going in opposite directions and are not coinciding in achieving the government’s objectives. Thus, there is a need to look at an alternative policy option to achieve the government’s objectives. The third policy option to encourage couples to have children and to increase their standard of living may be to encourage savings and encourage couples to save some of their income for the future. By doing so, the government will be encouraging higher amounts of investment in businesses and also increasing the income levels of the couples and households by offering them extra income from the gaining of interest payments. This will also make the future for couples more secure and will encourage them to possibly think of beginning their own family. Thus, the government must increase the interest rate on savi ng in order to encourage couples to save or the government may also offer a decreased interest rate on borrowing which would increase the money supply and encourage further consumption by households and which could be spent upon other goods and services besides food and beverages (Andreyeva, Long, Brownell, 2010). Thus, the government should decide upon an interest rate which would encourage couples to save and a lower interest rate which would encourage them to borrow and increase their consumption (Mytton, Clarke, Rayner, 2012). However, the optimal policy is to encourage couples and households to save as it would make their future more secure, the money put in banks could be invested elsewhere and the government would not be incurring unnecessary expenditure. Moreover, it would increase the welfare of the couples and households in the long run (Zheng, McLaughlin, Kaiser, 2013). References Andreyeva, T., Long, M. W., Brownell, K. D. (2010). The impact of food prices on consumption: a systematic review of research on the price elasticity of demand for food.American journal of public health, 100(2), 216-222. Bhargava, H. K. (2013). Mixed Bundling of Two Independently Valued Goods.Management Science. Chor, D. (2010). Unpacking sources of comparative advantage: A quantitative approach.Journal of International Economics, 82(2), 152-167. Gertler, M., Karadi, P. (2011). A model of unconventional monetary policy.Journal of Monetary Economics,58(1), 17-34. Mytton, O. T., Clarke, D., Rayner, M. (2012). Taxing unhealthy food and drinks to improve health.BMJ: British Medical Journal, 344. Nishimura, K., Shimomura, K. (2012). Trade and indeterminacy in a dynamic general equilibrium model. InNonlinear Dynamics in Equilibrium Models (pp. 347-361). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Starr, R. M. (2011).General equilibrium theory: An introduction. Cambridge University Press. Stavins, R. N. (2010).The problem of the commons: still unsettled after 100 years (No. w16403). National Bureau of Economic Research. Tsai, W. H., Kuo, L., Lin, T. W., Kuo, Y. C., Shen, Y. S. (2010). Price elasticity of demand and capacity expansion features in an enhanced ABC product-mix decision model.International Journal of Production Research,48(21), 6387-6416. Zheng, Y., McLaughlin, E. W., Kaiser, H. M. (2013). Taxing Food and Beverages: Theory, Evidence, and Policy. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 95(3), 705-723. How to cite Government Policies to Control Consumption Patterns, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

Superstition Essays - Folklore, Luck, Superstitions, Magic

Superstition Md. Mosharaf Bhuiayan ENG 1003 11/9/00 8:30 PM Prof. Dunning Emerged in Superstition In the middle of the night often my mother cries out, Oh God! The dog is whining in the middle of the night; this is inauspicious. Something terrible is coming! Riaz, go feed the dog. She is surrounded by all those superstitious beliefs. She even has book named Fazilatnama or Virtuous Obligation about all those superstitions, like what brings luck and what brings adversity. I am however a very rational person. I tend to believe in reason more than feeling, but I also happen to be superstitious- in my fashion and my culture. My superstitions are those that my mother conveyed to me, which are probably passed into her by her mother. Also the country Bangladesh, in which, I have grown most of my youth is full of superstitious beliefs. So superstitions are passed in the same way as my native language and my culture passed to me. Some examples of common everyday superstitions of my culture are the belief that if your palm itches, you will obtain money; that if your sole itches, you may tra vel; that if your right eyelash throbbed, you will face happiness. And the most common in all over the world as well as in my country is the belief that the number 13 is unlucky, and that a black cat crossing your path can affect your luck. According to The Little Oxford Dictionary, superstition is belief in the existence or power of the supernatural; irrational fear of the unknown; a religion or practice based on such tendencies; widely hold out but wrong idea. Now why do believe in something that has no logical explanation and according to science, which is completely wrong? We can find the answer in the definition of superstition. Though there is no rational explanation, we believe or obey those superstitions because we are afraid of the consequence of not obeying those rules. For example, my mother used to make me feed the dog in the middle of the night to save me from that unknown but something evil, because my mother believes that a dog can sense this evil and feeding the dog is also one way of offering food to that evil. The evil will release me because I offered him food. Also this is a belief that everyone else believes. Now it may be wrong, preposterous, but all the other people think its right and you believe it too. For example, in my country everybody believes that it is inauspicious to travel on an amaavasyaa or New Moon day. On a New Moon day, it is believed that all the demons of the universe walk on the earth and collision with one of them could bring something ominous or harmful. So, that is why my mother would not let me go out at that night because she wants to save me from that unknown but harmful demon. On the other hand, Science is the knowledge of the physical world and its phenomenon, which depends on testing facts and systematic experimentations. My country may be full of superstitions, but many of them can be debunked through logical and scientific experimentation. For example, my mother believes that a dog whines in the middle of the night because it can see all the harmful demons around him. She also believes that on the amaavasyaa or new Moon day all the demons walk around the earth. So during amaavasyaa our dog should whine all night long because he can see those demons (if there any) around him. However during some of the amaavasya I did not even see him whining at all. So the dog only whines when he is hungry and only food can make him stop whining in the middle of the night. Now the widespread belief that it is inauspicious to travel on an amaavasyaa can be proved wrong through logical explanation. This superstition must have evolved before the advent of electricity. It would have been problematic to be stuck at night on a lonely road and plundered by lurking thieves with no moonlight to light up the way. So at that time when there was no electricity, people made superstitions in order to

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Then and Now Essays

Then and Now Essays Then and Now Essay Then and Now Essay Now and Then Interview â€Å"Times sure have changed† is a quote that comes to mind when thinking of the different between being an adolescent today compared to being an adolescent sixty years ago. To find out more about the differences I was able to speak with a male, currently age 82, and a female age 18. I am familiar with both of these individuals one, a close friend of the family, and my cousin’s daughter was able to answer some questions for me also. These two people both grew up in the United States. The eighty-two year old lived in Kentucky as an adolescent. The eighteen year old currently resides in Arkansas. Times have changed and I learned a little about just how much in speaking with my willing participants. These two people from such different times in this country taught me quite a bit about how things are different than they were sixty years ago. When speaking with the elderly gentleman I found he spoke of his adolescents as a working time in his life. He wasn’t able to attend high school because World War II started. His father owned a saw mill and needed help making railroad ties for the government. He gave up going to school for working six days a week, 10 hour days in the saw mill, in addition to the home chores he had to do before and after work to help keep his household going. This compares drastically to the current adolescent I spoke to. Things are much different today in age than they were back then. The adolescent of today is graduating high school this month, where she was able to take medical classes along with her college prep classes. This subject works 25-30 hours per week at a local fast food restaurant, but by her own choice. One major difference between these two besides the importance of education is that the eighty-two year old did not get paid a wage to work 50 hours a week. He worked to help out his family, not to earn a wage. This gentleman was content to be given enough money to go the movies most weekends. He didn’t expect to receive a paycheck for the work he did. In speaking with the elderly individual I didn’t get a feeling that working at such a young age adversely affected his vocational identity. He worked because it was what he had to do. Working from such a young age in his home doing mandatory chores, and additionally having to work outside the home to help his father gave him a strong work ethic. Even though he is retired, this gentleman still lives alone, owns three vehicles, which he does all basic maintenance himself. Reading from the text book on page 419, the author makes it seem that working at a young age can harm an adolescent. This goes against my personal beliefs and what I found in doing these interviews, going to school and working helped both of my interview subjects, and from my own personal experience, it gave even me a better sense of responsibility and expectation for becoming an adult. From questions about school and job situations I moved into asking these individuals about the relationships they have or had with their parents. Neither subject spoke of conflicts with their parents. They both shared that their parents trust them to make correct decisions. The elderly man shared that his community was small, so his parents would warn that if he did something wrong it would get back to them. He claimed that he and his siblings knew to â€Å"just be a good citizen,† and if they did something wrong not only would their parents find out, but neighbors would correct them verbally if they were found to do something inappropriate, â€Å"it was a neighborhood kind of thing. When speaking to the current adolescent she shared that her household rules include only a curfew, dressing appropriately, not being allowed to be home alone with her boyfriend, or have him in her bedroom. Other than not being permitted to do drugs or alcohol, she said her father doesn’t place as many restrictions on her because he knows he can trust her to make good decisions. It seems both people were able to gain the trust and re spect of their parents by the time they were adolescence, keeping the conflict that can arise to a minimum. From conflicts in the home we spoke about what types of activities they do/did in their free time. This doesn’t seem to have changed much over the years. Both said they would just hang out with their friends wherever they were able to. Sixty years ago it was more outside and at Church. Today with transportation being easier things have shifted some to being â€Å"at each other’s houses, going to the mall, (we go to) Wal-Mart a lot. † Per the conversation I had with the youth of today. Though the locations are different, the time spent is similar enough. Peer selection was based on who they went to school or Church with, who was around them on a regular basis to gain that friendship with. I did notice that the current teenager shared she has had several boyfriends, where the elderly man advised he didn’t have a girlfriend until he was able to get a car of his own, which wasn’t until he was in his 20’s. This makes it appear that transportation makes dating easier. Though, he did share that walking a girl home from Church â€Å"was special. The actions are different from sixty years ago to today when adolescents spend free time with each other, but that’s to be expected with transportation and the amount of activities available increasing with technology. In closing, I found that both interview subjects were helpful in showing how the experience of being an adolescent has changed from sixty years ago to today. People still react to the environment around them. If a child is raised in a home where work is ex pected and no other option is given, they will most likely become a hard worker. Gender roles have changed and both people I spoke with mentioned something about how things are different now for women. It used to be women took care of the household, so when the eighty-two year old got married he expected his wife to stay home and take care of the house as his mother had. When she got a part time job after their kids were in school, he was upset by it, but allowed it. The young lady I spoke to provides money to her father for her vehicle payment, for her use of a cellular phone, and to help pay for their cable bill. She plans to attend college and become a teacher, which is the career she has chosen for herself. This is something she will expect any future spouse to be accepting of. Times have changed, and the roles men and women play have changed also. I learned more than I thought I would, but also found that some things haven’t changed, and I hope they never do. References Berger, K. S. (2008). The developing person through the life span, 7th edition. New York, NY: Worth, P, 416-425. Lambert, A. (2010, April 27). Telephone interview. Picklesimer, E. (2010, May 1). Telephone interview.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

El muro de Trump y su impacto ambiental

El muro de Trump y su impacto ambiental La construccià ³n de un muro a lo largo de la frontera entre Estados Unidos y Mà ©xico es una de las medidas ms controversiales propuestas por el Presidente Donald Trump. Este artà ­culo cubre informacià ³n sobre la valla que separa los dos paà ­ses, argumentos a favor y en contra de la construccià ³n del muro, en quà © consiste la Declaracià ³n de Emergencia Nacional declarada por el presidente Trump el 15 de febrero de 2019 y el impacto medioambiental que causarà ­a su construccià ³n. Puntos clave: el muro de Trump Extensià ³n de la frontera entre EE.UU. y Mà ©xico: 3.144 km (1.954 millas).Declaracià ³n Nacional de Emergencia: de dà ³nde proceden los 8.000 mil millones para su construccià ³n.Argumentos a favor: frenarà ­a migracià ³n indocumentada, drogas y posible infiltracià ³n de terroristas.Argumentos en contra: no resuelve presencia de 11 millones de indocumentados ni llegadas legales seguidas de permanencias ilegales; no afectarà ­a caminos de entrada de las drogas; alto costo e impacto a vida salvaje.Impacto medioambiental: el muro romperà ­a hbitats naturales de ms de 1.000 animales silvestres, incluyendo a 100 especies en peligro de extincià ³n. Cruzarà ­a por reservas de la biosfera, reservas naturales, santuarios de animales y parques nacionales. La frontera entre EE.UU. y Mà ©xico La frontera que separa Estados Unidos y Mà ©xico se alarga por 3.144,6 kilà ³metros (1.954 millas) desde el Golfo de Mà ©xico hasta el Pacà ­fico. En la actualidad, existe un valla de separacià ³n en 1.100 km (700 millas), la mayorà ­a se construyà ³ bajo la direccià ³n del Presidente George W. Bush como respuesta a los atentados terroristas del 11 de Septiembre del 2001. El precio de su construccià ³n fue de $2 mil millones. Por su alto costo se decidià ³ no extenderla toda la frontera. Su mantenimiento cuesta $500 millones anualmente. Adems de la valla, la frontera est protegida por la Policà ­a Fronteriza (CBP, por sus siglas en inglà ©s). Esta agencia –la cual cuenta con 20.000 agentes y un presupuesto anual de $3 mil millones- vigila la frontera a pie, a caballo, en auto y en embarcaciones con el apoyo de tecnologà ­a inteligente, como drones, cmaras, sensores y el establecimiento de retenes y controles migratorios. En el aà ±o fiscal 2018, segà ºn estadà ­sticas de la CBP, el nà ºmero de arrestados en la frontera sur tras cruzar ilegalmente el paà ­s ascendià ³ a 396.579 migrantes. A todos ellos se les aplicà ³ la polà ­tica de tolerancia cero. Argumentos a favor y en contra del muro de Trump Los defensores de la construccià ³n del muro argumentan tres razones principales. En primer lugar, frenarà ­a el ingreso de migrantes indocumentados. En la actualidad se estima que hay en el paà ­s 11 millones de migrantes sin papeles. En segundo lugar, se argumenta que si la frontera no est blindada existe un riesgo de infiltracià ³n de terroristas. Y, en tercer lugar, se afirma que la valla no es obstculo para el ingreso de drogas, lo que agravarà ­a el problema de adiccià ³n que existe en EE.UU. Segà ºn datos de los Centros de Control de Enfermedades y Prevencià ³n, ms de 33.000 estadounidenses mueren anualmente por sobredosis de opiceos. Desde otra perspectiva, se argumenta en contra del muro que este no frenarà ­a la migracià ³n indocumentada porque, por un lado, no resuelve el problema de la presencia en el paà ­s de 11 millones de migrantes y, por otro, porque la mitad de los indocumentados ingresan al paà ­s legalmente y no atravesando ilegalmente la frontera. En segundo lugar, se argumenta que no hay casos para apoyar la tesis de que los terroristas pueden ingresar ilegalmente a travà ©s de Mà ©xico. En tercer lugar, se esgrime que aproximadamente 15.000 personas de las fallecidas anualmente por consumo de opiceos tomaron medicinas que se obtienen en EE.UU. con receta. Adems, las drogas que ingresan de Mà ©xico hacia EE.UU. lo hacen por tà ºneles, en drones, compartimentos ocultos en buses o autos, o en camiones. Por lo tanto, el muro no afectarà ­a a ninguno de esos modos de transporte. Por à ºltimo, se esgrime en contra de la construccià ³n del muro su alto costo y su impacto ecolà ³gico. Costo de la construccià ³n del muro de Trump No hay consenso sobre cunto costarà ­a construir un muro que blindase los ms de 3.000 km de frontera entre Estados Unidos y Mà ©xico. Por un lado, el propio Presidente Trump estima que el precio del muro podrà ­a estar entre los $8 y $12 mil millones de dà ³lares. En el otro extremo del espectro se encuentran organizaciones como New America Foundation que estima el costo entre $27 y $40 millones. Por otro lado, la agencia de noticias Reuters tuvo acceso a un estudio de la Oficina de Contabilidad del Gobierno (GAO, por sus siglas en inglà ©s) en el cual estima que el muro costarà ­a $21,6 mil millones. El baile de cifras se debe, entre otros factores, a que se desconoce cul de las propuestas de muro se construirà ­a y, por lo tanto, sus caracterà ­sticas y materiales. En los ocho prototipos el material varà ­a de concreto a acero y la altura de 18 a 30 pies (5,5 a 9,1 metros). Declaracià ³n Nacional de Emergencia  ¿cul es el costo y quià ©n paga por el muro de Trump? Segà ºn la declaracià ³n de emergencia nacional del presidente Trump anunciada con fecha del 15 de febrero de 2019, podrà ­an obtenerse un mximo de $8 mil millones (8 billones) para la construccià ³n del muro. Un total de 1.375 millones de dà ³lares procederà ­an de un presupuesto autorizado por el Congreso de los Estados Unidos. La diferencia procederà ­a de fondos del Departamento del Tesoro de confiscaciones de drogas (600 millones de dà ³lares), fondos que habà ­an sido destinados a actividades del Departamento de Defensa en proyectos de lucha antidrogas y otros programas (2.500 millones de dà ³lares) y fondos destinados a proyectos de construccià ³n del Ejà ©rcito (3.600 millones de dà ³lares). Estas cantidades serà ­an suficientes para construir un muro a lo largo de toda la frontera. Segà ºn informacià ³n del gobierno, no todo el muro serà ­a de concreto sino que habrà ­a zonas de vallas metlicas. Impacto medioambiental del muro de Trump La construccià ³n de un muro por ms de 3.000 kilà ³metros tendrà ­a importantes efectos medioambientales. Una de las razones principales es una sentencia dictada en corte federal en febrero de 2018 que permite, por razones de seguridad nacional, la construccià ³n del muro fronterizo sin necesidad de respetar los preceptos de las siguientes legislaciones: Ley de Agua Potable Segura, Ley de Especies en Peligro de Extincià ³n, Ley de Agua Limpia, Ley de Aire Limpio, Ley de Eliminacià ³n de Desechos y Ley de Proteccià ³n de Tumbas Nativas Americanas y Repatriacià ³n. Ms de 2.500 cientà ­ficos estadounidenses, mexicanos y del resto del mundo, han hecho un llamado de atencià ³n sobre el impacto medioambiental del muro en un artà ­culo publicado en la revista cientà ­fica BioScience. Su opinià ³n es compartida por grupos medioambientalistas como Sierra Club. Esos expertos argumentan que el muro interrumpir los patrones de migraciones de animales, imposibilitando o limitando el acceso a sus lugares habituales de comida, bebida, apareamiento y nacimiento. En otras palabras, el muro supondrà ­a una fragmentacià ³n del hbitat animal y, posiblemente, limitarà ­a su diversidad genà ©tica. Segà ºn el Instituto de Ecologà ­a de la UNAM, ms de 800 especies se verà ­an afectadas, incluyendo al ocelote, bisonte, lobo gris mexicano, borrego cimarrà ³n, jaguar, tortuga del desierto, rana leopardo, oso negro, antà ­lope berrendo, ciervo mula, perros de la pradera, gato montà ©s, leà ³n de la montaà ±a y colibrà ­. Todo ello conducirà ­a a la reduccià ³n drstica de animales del suroeste estadounidense, de los cuales 100 ya se encuentran en peligro de extincià ³n actualmente, segà ºn datos de la Agencia de Vida Salvaje y Peces de los Estados Unidos. El muro incluso podrà ­a suponer la destruccià ³n del santuario de mariposas de mayor diversidad ubicada en Missions, Texas, y afectar negativamente, entre otros, al Refugio Nacional de la Vida Silvestre del Valle Bajo del Rà ­o Grande, al Parque Estatal Rà ­o Grande - Bentsen y los centros de la biosfera de Rancho Los Fresnos (Sonora) y Santa Ana (Texas). Este à ºltimo est ubicado en el valle del Rà ­o Grande, una de las reas con mayor diversidad ecolà ³gica en toda Norteamà ©rica. Adems, debido a la altura propuesta, el muro entre 18 y 30 pies tambià ©n afectarà ­a el movimiento de pjaros tropicales que vuelan por esas rutas en sus migraciones estacionales y de insectos. Esto tambià ©n tendrà ­a consecuencias negativas para las plantas que dependen en gran medida del movimiento de insectos y pjaros para la polinizacià ³n. Asimismo, activistas medioambientales a ambos lados de la frontera han mostrado su preocupacià ³n por la posibilidad de que el muro pueda actuar como un embalse en momentos de inundaciones, pudiendo causar una tragedia humana. Tambià ©n han puesto de manifiesto el riesgo de alterar con las obras del muro el nivel de los acuà ­feros y provocar desabastecimiento de agua. En este contexto, varias organizaciones han acudido a las cortes para intentar frenar o evitar los peores impactos ambientales que derivarà ­an de la construccià ³n del muro. Por ejemplo, el Center for Biological Diversity, en conjuncià ³n con Animal Legal Defense Fund, ha presentado en noviembre de 2018 una demanda buscando declarar inconstitucional el permiso concedido al gobierno por una corte para construir el muro sin respetar las leyes medioambientales. Esta estrategia ha sido utilizada sin à ©xito hasta el momento por otras organizaciones ecologistas. Este es un artà ­culo informativo. No es asesorà ­a legal.